MacSyFinder implementation overview

MacSyFinder is implemented with an object-oriented architecture. Below a short glossary to fix the vocabulary used in MacSyFinder


Is a “contiguous” set of hits. two hits are considered contiguous if the number of genes between the 2 genes matching the 2 hits in the replicon is lesser than inter-genes-max-space.


Is a formal description of a macromolecular system. Is composed of a definition and a list of profiles. at each gene of the Model must correspond a profile

Model family

A set of models, on the same topic. It is composed of several definitions which can be sorted in hierachical structure and profiles. A profile is a hmm profile file.


Is a definition of model, it’s serialize as a xml file


It’s a systems combination for one replicon. The best solution for a replicon, is the combination of all systems found in this replicon which maximize the score.


It’s an occurrence of a specific Model on a replicon. Basically, it’s a cluster or set of clusters which satisfy the Model quorum.

MacSyFinder project structure

A brief overview of the files and directory constituting the MacSyFinder project


The project is documented using sphinx. All sources files needed to generate this documentation is in the directory doc


This the MacSyFinder python library Inside macsypy there is a subdirectory scripts which are the entry points for macsyfinder and macsydata


The code is tested using unittests. In tests the directory data contains all data needed to perform the tests.


Contains a binary setsid needed macsyfinder to parallelize some steps. Usually setsid is provides by the system, but some macOS version does not provide it.


A file indicating how to cite macsyfinder in yaml format.


A file containing the list of code contributors.


A guide on how to contribute to the project.

The macsyfinder copyrights.


The licencing. MacSyFinder is released under GPLv3.

Brief information about the project.

The installation recipe.


The installation recipe.


tools to use to build the project.

MacSyFinder architecture overview

An overview of the main classes.


The macsyfinder classes diagram. The classes are not details. only the main attributes allowing us to understand the interaction are mentioned.

  • in green the modules

  • in orange, the concrete class

  • in red the abstract classes

  • in blue the enumeration

  • in purple the dataclass

  • in purple/pink functions


use view image of your browser to zoom in the diagram

MacSyFinder functioning overview

In this section I’ll give you an idea of the macsyfinder functioning at very high grain coarse.

As all program the entrypoint is the main function The goal of macsyfinder.main is to parse the command line. Then to creates a configuration object and also initialize the logger. After that it call main_search_systems which contains the macsyfinder logic

The first main_search_systems task is to create models asked by the user on the command line. So a DefinitionParser is instantiated and the ModelBank and GeneBank are populated

Once all models are created, we gather all genes and search them in the replicons. This step is done in parallel. The search is done by profile object associated to each gene and rely on the external software hmmsearch. The parallelization is ensure by search_genes function The results of this step is a list of hits.

This list is sorted by position and score. this list is filtered to keep only one hit for each position, the one with the best score (position is a gene product in a replicon)

For each model asked by the user, we filter the hits list to keep only those related to the model. Those which are link to mandatory, accessory, neutral or forbidden genes included the exchangeables.

This hits are clustered based on distance constraints describe in the models:

  • inter_gene_max_space : the maximum genes allowed between to genes of a system.

  • loner : allow a gene to participate to system even if it does not clusterize with some other genes.

Then we check if each cluster satisfy the quorum described in the model.

  • min_mandatory_genes : the minimum of mandatory genes requisite to have a system.

  • min_genes_required : the minimum of genes (mandatory + accessory) requisite to have a system.

  • forbidden_genes : no forbidden genes may appear in the cluster.

If the model is multi_loci we generate a combination of the clusters and check the quorum for each combination. If the cluster or combination satisfy the quorum a is created otherwise a macsypy.cluster.RejectedCandidate.

The Systems from the same replicon are sort against their position, score.


The neutral genes are used to build clusters. But not to fulfill the quorum.

Among all this potential systems, MSF compute the best combination. macsypy.solution.find_best_solutions(). The best combination is the set of compatible systems (do not share common hits) which maximize the score. It’s possible to have several equivalent “best solutions”. The results of this step is reported in the best_systems.tsv file.

The Model object

The Model object represents a macromolecular model to detect. It is defined via a definition file in XML stored in a dedicated location that can be specified via the configuration file, or the command-line (-d parameter). See The XML hierarchy for more details on the XML grammar.

An object ModelDefinitionParser is used to build a model object from its XML definition file.

A model is named after the file tree name of its XML definition. A model has an attribute inter_gene_max_space which is an integer, and four kind of components are listed in function of their presence in the system:

  • The genes that must be present in the genome to define this model (“mandatory”).

  • The genes that can be present, but do not have to be found in every case (“accessory”).

  • The genes that are used to build clusters, but not take in account to check the quorum (min-genes-required and min-mandatory-genes-required) are described as “neutral”.

  • The genes that must not be present in the system (“forbidden”).


A complete description of macromolecular models modelling is available in the section Macromolecular models

The Gene object

The Gene object represents genes encoding the protein components of a Model. There is 2 kind of gene The CoreGene (macsypy.gene.CoreGene) which must be unique given a name. A CoreGene must have a corresponding HMM protein profile. These profiles are represented by Profile objects (macsypy.profile.Profile), and must be named after the gene name. For instance, the gene gspD will correspond to the “gspD.hmm” profile file. See The Profile object). After hmmsearch step the hits are link the them. The CoreGene must be created by using the GeneBank factory.

A ModelGene (macsypy.gene.ModelGene) which encapsulate a CoreGene and is linked to a Model. Instead CoreGene, several ModelGene with the same name may coexists in macsyfinder, in different Models and hold different values for attributes as inter_gene_max_space, … Each ModelGene points out its Model of origin (macsypy.model.Model). A Gene has several properties described in the Gene API.

A ModelGene may be functionally replaced by an other (usually Homologs or Analogs). In this case these genes are described as exchangeables. Exchangeable object encapsulates a ModelGene and has a reference to the ModelGene it is exchangeable to. See the Exchangeable API for more details.


To optimize computation and to avoid concurrency problems when we search several Models, each CoreGene must be instantiated only once, and stored in a “gene_bank”. gene_bank is a macsypy.gene.GeneBank object. The gene_bank and model_bank are filled by the system_parser (macsypy.definition_parser.ModelDefinitionParser)

The Profile object

Each “CoreGene” component corresponds to a “Profile”. The “Profile” object is used for the search of the gene with Hmmer. Thus, a “Profile” must match a HMM file, which name is based on the profile name. For instance, the gspG gene has the corresponding “gspG.hmm” profile file provided at a dedicated location.

Reporting Hmmer search results

A “HMMReport” ( object represents the results of a Hmmer program search on the input dataset with a hidden Markov model protein profile. This object has methods to extract and build “Hits” that are then analyzed for systems assessment.

It analyses Hmmer raw outputs, and applies filters on the matches (according to Hmmer options). See Hmmer results’ output files for details on the resulting output files. For profile matches selected with the filtering parameters, “Hit” objects are built (see the Hit API).

tests coverage

macsyfinder coverage